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Storing Documents

The primary function of Marten is to store and retrieve documents to a Postgresql database, so here's all the ways that Marten enables you to write to the document storage.

"Upsert" with Store()

Postgresql has an efficient upsert capability that we exploit in Marten to let users just say "this document has changed" with the IDocumentSession.Store() method and not have to worry about whether or not the document is brand new or is replacing a previously persisted document with the same identity. Here's that method in action with a sample that shows storing both a brand new document and a modified document:

using var store = DocumentStore.For("some connection string");

using var session = store.LightweightSession();

var newUser = new User
{
    UserName = "travis.kelce"
};

var existingUser = await session.Query<User>()
    .SingleAsync(x => x.UserName == "patrick.mahomes");

existingUser.Roles = new[] {"admin"};

// We're storing one brand new document, and one
// existing document that will just be replaced
// upon SaveChangesAsync()
session.Store(newUser, existingUser);

await session.SaveChangesAsync();

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The Store() method can happily take a mixed bag of document types at one time, but you'll need to tell Marten to use Store<object>() instead of letting it infer the document type as shown below:

using var store = DocumentStore.For("some connection string");
var user1 = new User();
var user2 = new User();
var issue1 = new Issue();
var issue2 = new Issue();
var company1 = new Company();
var company2 = new Company();

using var session = store.LightweightSession();

session.Store<object>(user1, user2, issue1, issue2, company1, company2);
await session.SaveChangesAsync();

// Or this usage:
var documents = new object[] {user1, user2, issue1, issue2, company1, company2};

// The argument here is any kind of IEnumerable<object>
session.StoreObjects(documents);
await session.SaveChangesAsync();

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Insert & Update

While IDocumentSession.Store will perform either insertion or update depending on the existence of documents, IDocumentSession also exposes methods to explicitly control this persistence behavior through IDocumentSession.Insert and IDocumentSession.Update.

IDocumentSession.Insert stores a document only in the case that it does not already exist. Otherwise a DocumentAlreadyExistsException is thrown. IDocumentSession.Update on the other hand performs an update on an existing document or throws a NonExistentDocumentException in case the document cannot be found.

using (var session = theStore.OpenSession())
{
    session.Insert(target);
    session.SaveChanges();
}

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Bulk Loading

Marten supports Postgresql's COPY functionality for very efficient insertion of documents like you might need for test data set up or data migrations. Marten calls this feature "Bulk Insert," and it's exposed off the IDocumentStore interface as shown below:

// This is just creating some randomized
// document data
var data = Target.GenerateRandomData(100).ToArray();

// Load all of these into a Marten-ized database
theStore.BulkInsert(data, batchSize: 500);

// And just checking that the data is actually there;)
theSession.Query<Target>().Count().ShouldBe(data.Length);

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The bulk insert is done with a single transaction. For really large document collections, you may need to page the calls to IDocumentStore.BulkInsert().

And new with Marten v4.0 is an asynchronous version:

TIP

If you are concerned with server resource utilization, you probably want to be using the asynchronous versions of Marten APIs.

// This is just creating some randomized
// document data
var data = Target.GenerateRandomData(100).ToArray();

// Load all of these into a Marten-ized database
await theStore.BulkInsertAsync(data, batchSize: 500);

// And just checking that the data is actually there;)
theSession.Query<Target>().Count().ShouldBe(data.Length);

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By default, bulk insert will fail if there are any duplicate id's between the documents being inserted and the existing database data. You can alter this behavior through the BulkInsertMode enumeration as shown below:

// Just say we have an array of documents we want to bulk insert
var data = Target.GenerateRandomData(100).ToArray();

using var store = DocumentStore.For("some connection string");

// Discard any documents that match the identity of an existing document
// in the database
await store.BulkInsertDocumentsAsync(data, BulkInsertMode.IgnoreDuplicates);

// This is the default mode, the bulk insert will fail if any duplicate
// identities with existing data or within the data set being loaded are detected
await store.BulkInsertDocumentsAsync(data, BulkInsertMode.InsertsOnly);

// Overwrite any existing documents with the same identity as the documents
// being loaded
await store.BulkInsertDocumentsAsync(data, BulkInsertMode.OverwriteExisting);

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The bulk insert feature can also be used with multi-tenanted documents, but in that case you are limited to only loading documents to a single tenant at a time as shown below:

// Just say we have an array of documents we want to bulk insert
var data = Target.GenerateRandomData(100).ToArray();

using var store = DocumentStore.For(opts =>
{
    opts.Connection("some connection string");
    opts.Policies.AllDocumentsAreMultiTenanted();
});

// If multi-tenanted
await store.BulkInsertDocumentsAsync("a tenant id", data);

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